Research Paper: Outline Topic: Explain various factorsA that led to the scramble and partition of Africa and West Africa in particular by European powers.
Economic factors: 1. The industrial revolution in Europe. a) The revolution led to search for markets for European manufactured goods in Africa resulting in scramble for and partition. b) The need for raw materials. The machines invented processed goods faster than use of hand. The Europeans came to Africa in search of raw materials like cotton, palm oil, copper and iron ore. c) Cheap labour was also readily available in Africa after the abolition of slave trade. d) There was desire by the entrepreneurs to invest excess capital gained from accumulation of profits from industrial investment. Africa provided an avenue for investment. Political reasons : 1. Unification of Germany after under Otto Von Bismarck after the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-71. 2. Militarism. Army officers in Europe favoured colonial expansionist wars to give them greater opportunities for glory or promotion. 3. The rise of Nationalism. In Europe, there was the rise of a general feeling of civilians that their nations should acquire overseas colonies for national prestige. The Germans began feeling they belonged to a superior race that must be shown by acquiring colonies in Africa. Social reasons: 1. The work of Christian missionaries ~ The missionaries had direct contact with the people of the interior of Africa and they were frontrunners who paved way for the colonialists through their works. 2. The growth of European population. The growth of European population –steadily to about 420 million in the 19th century led to the quest for new outlets to resettle the population. 3. Anti-slave trade campaigns- Humanitarian factor. The humanitarians in Europe like William Wilberforce and Granville Sharp, and the missionaries who led the crusade against slave trade advocated for colonization of Africa in order to stop it and introduce.